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STUDY OF THE SOUTHWEST BORDERLAND OF CHINA AND CHIEFTAIN IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF “THE CENTRAL CHINA AGRICULTURAL CIVILIZATION PLATE”

YUFengchun

(Research Center for Chinese Borderland History and Geography, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, 100005, China)

JOURNAL OF ETHNOLOGY, VOL. 3, NO. 5, 01-17, 2012 (CN51-1731/C, in Chinese)

DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2012.05.01

Abstract: When “the central China agricultural civilization plate” opened up by Emperor Wudi in Han Dynasty to the territory of China established at last in 1820, the borderland of the “plate”——Korea Si Jun and Nanyue San Jun that were relatively stable, had supported themselves successively. However, the area of Southwest Yi or Xinanyi, with a turbulent history of more than a thousand years, where the traffic was blocked, miasma was raging, the economy and culture was unique and the separatist forces were strong , was still at the hand of Qing Government. This is because the area was the place where Kublai Khan strengthed his power. He established administration and chieftain system there in order to strengthen his rule. The court of the Ming dynasty,on the other hand, wished to change this area into a rear base depending on its natural and human resources so as to prevent the Northern Yuan’s re-occupation of the southwest. In order to prevent the union of the powers of the Mongolian and Tibetan with the chieftains in southwest and guarantee the supply of Dian copper, the court of the Qing dyansty chose to implement series of policies like “gaitu guiliu”(replace the local chieftains with royal pointed officials) to strengthen its rule in the southwest. The actions taken by the above mentioned three courts and the fact of Central China farmers’ bringing of high yielding crop seeds of America which can resistant to the high plateau, cold weather and barren land in the late Ming period made the southwest area which was regarded as a place “hard to be controlled” in the past, become a part of “the central China plate” at last.

Key Words:“the central China agricultural civilization plate”; chieftain; miasma; gaitu guiliu

THE HISTORIANS’ CONSTRUCTION OF CHIEFTAIN G?NPO NAMGYE’S IMAGE

YUDRU Tsomu (JING Hongmei)

(History Department, Lawrence University of U.S.A. )

JOURNAL OF ETHNOLOGY, VOL. 3, NO. 5, 18-29, 2012 (CN51-1731/C, in Chinese)

DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2012.05.02

Abstract: In historical literatures, the image of G?npo Namgyel, an indigenous chieftain of Nyarong in Central Kham in the mid-19th century, experienced a transformation from a loathsome destroyer of happiness and peace to a tragic leader of a serf uprising, and later again to a self-serving warlord.The process ofconstructing the image of G?npo Namgyel shows that the construction of historical figures is rather complex and ambivalent, and is often influenced by various factors.The historians’ ideological focus, biases of official documents, contemporary political context, and current academic concerns all have impacted on the construction of G?npo Namgyel’s image. Historical narration means to construct historical figures within a narrative structure, relying on prevalent narrative methods of the times, and the narrative structure just reflects the concerns of the period.

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